Object Oriented Programming is a model of language programming revolving around objects in preference of actions and data in preference of logic. A program is a rational procedure that processes and produces input data into output data. In OOP, the programmers define the type of data in a data structure as well as the kinds of operations functional to the data structure. The data structure is the object including data and functions.
Programmers create relationships between objects and objects inherit features from other objects. Objects have grounds to store data and can complete tasks known as methods.
Basic Terminologies in OOP
An object is a self-sustaining unit consisting of data and procedures for manipulating data. They are the code units derived from the programming processes. The object is the operational entity of a class.
The class is a group of objects. It defines the capability as well as the method and variable of the object. The structure of classes and subclasses is known as a class hierarchy.
Encapsulation and abstraction
Encapsulation is the process of adding up elements to create an entity. The process of encapsulation may combine a sequence of c0mputer instructions. The essence of encapsulation is to have control of data by use of a code protecting the data from random assessment by other codes. Abstraction is the process of selecting or abstracting particular features that are common from procedures and objects.
Information hiding is the process of reducing complexity by hiding details concerning the object of function. Variables of a class can be hidden from other classes in a way that allows access only through the current class.
Inheritance and interface
Inheritance allows new objects to acquire properties of their objects in existence. A superclass is the basis inheritance while the subclass in the inheriting class. The interface, on the other hand, is the alternative to inheritance as it allows the program to compose and enforce languages and codes of an object.
Polymorphism and procedure
Polymorphism is the ability of the programming language to process objects differently about the class and data type. A procedure is a part of the program designed to perform a particular task.
Stages of Object Oriented Programming
- The programmer creates the program composes classes of the object that will be used in running the program. The programmer identifies how all the objects relate to each other, a process called data modeling.
- The program is then compiled into bytecode.
- The last stage is known as the runtime. The programmer starts running the program creating and activating the objects depending on the task and the input data.
Importance of OOP
- Programmers create permanent modules that work even with the change in objects.
- Programmers create new objects with that can inherit characteristics from existing objects.
- The object-oriented programs are easily modified and reused.
- Due to hiding and abstraction, there is a decrease in data corruption.
- Designing the software is easy.
Languages used in OOP
The first OOP language was Simula. The most popular languages are Java, C++, Python, NET, Visual Basic, and Ruby.
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